To read and write Malayalam you should master the letters of the language. Shown below are  symbols used for writing Malayalam.


Each box in the first row contains the visual sign for the concerned Vowel when it occurs initially. The corresponding box in the third row contains its visual sign when occurring non-initially .

The first box in the lower row is empty since the visual sign of most consonants in Malayalam represent a syllable containing an inherent A ( A ). When the sign representing any other non-initial vowel is added the visual sign of  the consonant does not carry any quality of the inherent A ( A ).


anusvaram () and visargam ()


Anusvaram represents the consonant M without the inherent A   ( A ).Visargam represents the consonant h, without the inherent A ( A ), in certain loan  words from Sanskrit.


Chandrakkala or miithal()

This has two values in the present day Malayalam Writing system:

  • Indicates that the preceding consonant sign represents just the consonant without the inherent A ( A ).

  • In specific contexts it has the value approximating the short form of the vowel in learn.

Pure Consonants

    Each of the following signs represents just a consonant without the inherent A       ( A ).




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